Who We Serve & Our Success

Who does Bob Belloni Ranch serve?

The Belloni Boys Ranch and Wineva Johnson Center for Girls serve youth placed by the Oregon Youth Authority who have been adjudicated on a juvenile crime, and have been unsuccessful supervised on probation by a local county juvenile department and are in need of additional services to reduce the likelihood of future adjudication through long-term behavioral rehabilitation.

Youth are placed by the Oregon Youth Authority in programs according to risk to the community, and needs of the youth as determined by assessments. These tools are guides to enhance decision-making by Juvenile Probation/Parole Officers. The risk tools help them understand how “risky” or “needy” one youth is compared to other youth and can help you align placement and treatment decisions effectively.

From the Risk Needs Assessment (RNA) or Oregon Typology Assessment (OTA) the Oregon Youth Authority can generate a typology that describes the youth and can then best place the youth into a program that is tooled to work with that typology to manage risk to the community and needs of the youth.

The RNA is a validated assessment and can be used to predict risk of youth recidivism.  Recidivism is defined by the likelihood a youth will recidivate with a felony adjudication or conviction within 36 months of placement on or commitment to probation, or release from OYA close custody

The assessment also identifies areas of risk, need, and protective factors in known criminogenic risk areas for youth offenders; and assists in the development of a case plan in domains such as offense specific, family, mental health, substance use, education, vocation, life/social skills, and medical.

The OTA is an assessment that is used to capture a youth’s typology.  The OTA is derived from the RNA and includes only the questions from the RNA that determine a youth’s typology.  The OTA assists in determining a youth’s typology while on county supervision or pre-OYA commitment to use for planning and placement decisions.

What are typologies?

As part of the Youth Reformation System (YRS), the Oregon Youth Authority and its community partners have developed a set of research-based “typologies” to help them inform decision-making about best placement and treatment strategies for youth who are part of the juvenile justice system. This set of typologies serves as an important tool in helping guide decisions about the right placement, right treatment and right time for the youth we serve.

How are typologies derived?

Within the first 30 days a youth enters the juvenile system, a Risk Needs Assessment (RNA) is developed based on data such as criminal history, drug or alcohol use, family history, physical and mental health status, skills, level of aggression and many other factors. Based on information derived from 10 factors within the RNA, each youth is determined to contain the characteristics of a certain typology or a blend of two or more typologies.

How are typologies used?

Typologies – along with other tools such as the OYA Recidivism Risk Assessment (ORRA) and OYA Recidivism Risk Assessment-Violent Crime (ORRA-V) – are combined with staff’s professional judgment to best meet the needs of each youth and to help youth go on to lead productive, crime-free lives.

Considering typologies, which typology does the Belloni Boys Ranch serve?  Of the 184 boys that have been at the Belloni Boys Ranch from June 1, 2006 through June 30, 2015, all typologies have been at the Boys Ranch.  A recent predicted success rate study by the Oregon Youth Authority rated the Belloni Boys Ranch as the one of the most effective programs for all typologies.  The Boys Ranch has served the following male typologies in the following percentages, by providing behavioral rehabilitation to the following needs with proven approaches for success:

Male Typologies

Typology A (15.08%)

  • Few or no protective factors (i.e., family and/or support system) present
  • High history of, and current alcohol or drug use
  • Poor relationships and relationship skills
  • High level of aggression and attitude issues
  • Prominent educational issues
  • High need of mental health follow up

These youth tend to respond to punitive interventions with further escalation, reducing the likelihood of positive rapport with staff or desired skill development.  These youth can be impulsive and reactive, and are typically skeptical about trusting or relying on others to get their needs met because, from their perspective, they have not been able to rely on others in the past.  These youth are frequently angry due to their frustration at not knowing how to get their needs met effectively and/or appropriately and not believing that others are sincere in their willingness to assist.  Typology A youth tend to perceive that they have been, and will likely be, treated unfairly.

Especially with this typology, staff seek to develop relationships built on trust and respect.  Such bonding is challenging, but necessary in order for the youth to stabilize and to move forward.  Those staff, with whom a trusting relationship has been established, are in the best position to model cognitive flexibility and pro social thinking patterns to establish a pattern for positive change.

Typology B (7.26%)

  • Moderate protective factors present
  • High history of alcohol or drug use and moderate current alcohol or drug use
  • Poor relationships and relationship skills
  • Moderate level of aggression and attitude issues
  • Prominent educational issues
  • Low need of immediate mental health follow up

Interventions are tailored to individuals’ cognitive abilities which often includes extra time to process information and respond.  These youth tend to learn through repeated, applied, and guided experiences rather than traditional cognitive interventions.  Follow up focuses on the youth describing in their own words what they have learned.

With this typology, staff focus on asking open – ended, clarifying questions rather than summarizing or interpreting outcomes. This allows the youth to process and learn and likely results in generalized learning that provides more consistent positive behavioral outcomes.

Typology C (16.20%)

  • Moderate protective factors present
  • Low to moderate alcohol or drug use, both currently and historically
  • Moderate difficulty with relationships and relationship skills
  • Moderate level of aggression and attitude issues
  • History of mental health
  • Prominent educational issues
  • High need of immediate mental health follow up

These youth generally struggle with a variety of social skills, including comprehension of how their behavior affects others, resulting in behaviors that appear to be in conflict with the youth’s desire to develop and maintain relationships.

Early in the placement, staff focus on behavior stabilization by addressing any present mental health symptoms, problem solving skills, and emotional regulation skills.  Staff work with this type of youth through the perspective of the skills that are lacking or deficient. The Ranch engages them in as many positive activities as they are capable of doing successfully and these activities reinforce their areas of interest and strength while further developing new or underdeveloped skills.

Typology D (1.12%)

  • Few or no protective factors present
  • Low to no current or history of alcohol or drug use
  • No obvious needs factors present
  • Further assessments needed
  • Determine eligibility for community placement or close custody if stabilization is required

Due to the significant variation in types and levels of risk and needs in this typology, further review of completed assessments is necessary to determine risk, needs, and best approaches for case planning and treatment services.

Typology E (30.73%)

  • High protective factors present
  • Low current or historical alcohol or drug use
  • Little difficulty with relationships and relationship skills
  • Low to moderate level of aggression and attitude issues
  • Low need for immediate mental health follow up
  • Moderately prominent educational issues
  • Responsivity issues that affect the youth’s ability and motivation to improve from particular interventions

Given these youth have many and supportive protective factors, staff take steps to preserve positive, ongoing relationships and supports as they will assist in the successful implementation of treatment interventions.  Supportive contact with these individuals, and continued participation in the youth’s current interests and activities, is critical to their ability to progress.

Typology F (29.61%)

  • Few or no protective factors present
  • Moderate current and historical alcohol or drug use
  • Moderate difficulty with relationships and relationship skills
  • High level of aggression and attitude issues
  • Prominent educational issues
  • Responsivity issues
  • Moderate need for immediate mental health follow up

This typology represents youth who are extremely isolated and distrusting of the world.  These youth will often display attitudes and endorse beliefs that are problematic due to their surface appearance of extreme anti-social bias.

Staff devotes themselves to helping this typology to establish positive relationships with adults.   Success with these youth nearly always involve a meaningful connection with a positive adult that has been sustained regardless of the youth’s behavior or attitude.  Staff interact with the youth with ongoing inquiry, including a commitment to looking beneath the youth’s surface presentation and a genuine interest in learning about the youth from his perspective.

Studied Findings for the Belloni Boys Ranch

Indicators studied that impact success within the program include: past placement in close custody, convicted of a sex offenses, risk to community, typology of needs, age, race/ethnicity, previous program placement, days in program, available days to reoffend, and meaningful interactions.

Average Length of Stay – 293.82 days (9.5 Months) African American 10.48%
Average Age – 14.6 Asian – 2.86%
Experience with Closed Custody – 29.35% Hispanic – 24.28%
Adjudicated for a Sex Offense – 44.57% Native American – 3.33%
Predicted Recidivism Risk  – 20.65%  (Average at Placement) Caucasian – 58.10%

Placement in the Belloni Boys Ranch has shown a significant decrease in recidivism of Oregon Youth Authority youth placed.  Study additionally states that the Belloni Boys Ranch is highly effective with all typologies.

Wineva Johnson Center for Girls

Considering typologies, which typology does the Wineva Johnson Center for Girls serve?  Of the 115 girls that have been at the Wineva Johnson Center for Girls from June 1, 2006 through June 30, 2015, all typologies have been at the Wineva Johnson Center for Girls.  Much like the Belloni Boys Ranch, the same recent predicted success rate study by the Oregon Youth Authority rated the Wineva Johnson Center for Girls as the one of the most effective programs for all typologies.  The Center for Girls has served the following female typologies in the following percentages, by also providing behavioral rehabilitation to the following needs with proven gender appropriate approaches for success:

Typology 1 (15.08%)

  • Low to moderate protective factors present
  • High history of and current alcohol or drug use
  • Poor relationships and relationship skills
  • High level of aggression and attitude issues
  • Education issues are very prominent
  • High need of mental health follow up

Strategies that confirm understanding support the trust- and rapport-building process.   Youth from this typology usually require a longer period of time to adjust to an increased level of supervision and expectations.  This typology requires an approach that is relationship-centered, which includes time and opportunities to familiarize herself with increased expectations and to build rapport with positive adults.  These youth may demonstrate relational aggression, often in the form of bullying.

Staff ensure that expectations are attainable and have some flexibility built in, as these youth can see them as a “promise” and mistrust staff if not directly adhered to. Staff provide an emotionally, physically, and psychologically safe environment that strengthens the relationship and allows relational trust.   Crisis intervention includes a one-on-one or a small group approach. These youth benefit from opportunities to physically separate from the situation to have time to reflect on what is occurring and to allow them a forum to express their emotions. Verbal de-escalation is used and generally they respond well.  Staff address treatment issues slowly to not trigger run behaviors or emotional withdrawal.  Staff generally start the transition plan well in advance to reduce apprehension.  Reminding them of strengths and achievements reduce anxiety.

Typology 2 (7.26%)

  • Moderate protective factors present
  • Moderate history of alcohol or drug use and moderate current alcohol or drug use
  • Some issues with relationships and relationship skills
  • Low level of aggression and attitude issues
  • Education issues are moderate
  • High need of immediate mental health follow up

Typology 2 youth will do what they feel they need to do to ensure their basic needs are met. Negative behaviors displayed by these youth may, in fact, be adaptive skills developed to ensure their basic needs are met the best way they know how.  Youth general present themselves as disruptive and defiant and/or find it difficult to take responsibility for their actions.

Since this female typology initially is resistive to services. Dependability and predictability of staff develop emotional and psychological safety for these girls. Clear boundaries and expectations prevent misunderstanding and distrust. Because of emotional defensiveness, private interventions by staff help the youth feels emotionally safe, Staff consistently applied direct, honest, non-confrontational, and respectful interactions that allow for the explanation of “why” and “when.”

Typology 3 (16.20%)

  • Few or no protective factors present
  • Low to no current or historical alcohol or drug use
  • Some difficulty with relationships and relationship skills
  • Further assessments needed
  • Determine eligibility for community placement or close custody if stabilization is required

Due to the significant variation in types and levels of risk and needs in this typology, further review of completed assessments is necessary to determine risk, needs, and best approaches for case planning and treatment services.

​Typology 4 (1.12%)

  • Low protective factors present
  • Moderate history alcohol or drug use, low current alcohol or drug use
  • Moderate to high difficulty with relationships and relationship skills
  • Moderate level of aggression and attitude issues
  • Education issues are prominent
  • Moderate need for immediate mental health follow up

Building relationship, with clear boundaries are essential with typology. Progress takes time, patience, with realistic expectations. Typology 4 youth respond well to high expectations and are likely to participate in their case planning.  They typically possess strengths of flexibility and adaptability, and quickly stabilize in supportive environments. These youth require relationship-based approaches with the presence of caring and supportive relationships (e.g., family, extended family, positive mentors, positive adults, and peers)

Staff provide consistent emotional, physical, and psychological safety. These youth tend to see how their actions and the actions of others affect them.  When a problem or crisis arises, staff provide one-on-one or small group approaches focusing on building constructive problem-solving skills which has proven to be effective.  Staff give time for this typology to reflect, and express emotions.  A follow-up with a conversation about the behavior and reinforcement of the expectations maintain the trusting relationship between the youth and staff.

Wineva Johnson Center for Girls Findings

Indicators that impact success within the program include placement in close custody, convicted of a sex offenses, risk to community, typology of needs, age, race/ethnicity, previous program placement, days in program, available days to reoffend, and meaningful interactions.

Average Length of Stay in Days – 196.13 (6.5 Months) African American 3.48%
Average Age – 15.03 Asian – 4.35%
Experience with Closed Custody – 25.22% Hispanic – 13.91%
Adjudicated on Sex Offense – 6.09% Native American – 12.17%
Predicted Recidivism Risk  – 16.52%  (Average at Placement) Caucasian – 65.22%

Placement in the Wineva Johnson Center for Girls has shown a significant decrease in recidivism of Oregon Youth Authority youth placed.  Study additionally states that the Wineva Johnson Center for Girls is more effective with paroled youth from correctional facilities.  Study reveals that the Wineva Johnson Center for Girls is better with type 1 than type 4 girls.

Belloni Shelter Care and Assessment Center

Both boys and girls are placed at the Belloni Shelter Care and Assessment Center for short-term placements by the Oregon Youth Authority, Department of Human Services – Child Welfare Division, Coos Health and Wellness, and the Coos County Juvenile Department.  The Shelter Care and Assessment Center focuses on crisis stabilization, assessment assistance, and adjustment to living within a residential program.  Continued education, skill development, medication management, and professional crisis counseling become the focus during the duration of placement.

Belloni Shelter Care and Assessment Center Findings

To be consistent with the other two programs, only the Oregon Youth Authority data is included in these findings.  Just like the long-term behavior change focused programs, the same indicators that impact success for adjudicated youth include placement in close custody, convicted of a sex offenses, risk to community, typology of needs, age, race/ethnicity, previous program placement, days in program, available days to reoffend, and meaningful interactions.

Of the 97 boys and 50 girls placed by the Oregon Youth Authority from June 1, 2006 through June 30, 2015, all typologies have been served in short term care are shown.

Average Length of Stay in Days – 35.97 African American 4.08%
Average Age – 14.82 Asian – 4.08%
Experience in Closed Custody – 17.69% Hispanic – 10.20%
Adjudicated on Sex Offense – 23.13% Native American – 10.20%
Boys (Type A) – 9.72% Caucasian – 69.39%
Boys (Type B) – 9.03% Girls (Type 1) – 20.83%
Boys (Type C) – 13.89% Girls (Type 2) – 7.64%
Boys (Type D) – 60.00% Girls (Type 3) – 2.08%
Boys (Type E) – 16.67% Girls (Type 4) – 4.17%
Boys (Type F) – 15.28% Predicted Recidivism Risk  – 21.00%  (Average at Placement)

Youth placement in the Shelter Care and Assessment Center has shown to decrease the likelihood of recidivism of the Oregon Youth Authority youth placed.  Study additionally states that the Shelter Care and Assessment Center is more effective with higher-risk youth and equally effective with all other typologies.

Is Bob Belloni Ranch effective?

In 2010, 2013, and 2016, the Oregon Youth Authority conducted three state-wide quality evaluations of all rehabilitation programing, which included private contractors.  The Oregon Youth Authority would study all adjudicated youth placed at Bob Belloni Ranch over a 7 year period by applying an expected recidivism tool.  After the youth stayed in the program for at least 30 days, the Oregon Youth Authority tracked them for an additional 3 years following placement to determine actual recidivism.  When comparing expected outcomes and actual outcomes and ranking with other programs in and outside the Oregon Youth Authority, Bob Belloni Ranch was ranked as one of the most effective programs in the State of Oregon for delinquent adolescents with a success rate of 94%.